The disease of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) belongs to one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections and HPV causes a spectrum of diseases, ranging from genital warts to cancer. The important goal of immunization programs in many countries is the reduction of the incidence of cervical cancer using either the quadrivalent (Silgard/Gardasil) or the bivalent (Cervarix) HPV (human papillomavirus) vaccine. Randomized controlled trials demonstrate robust antibody responses and high efficacy also in men. In 2009 the Food and Drug Administration in the USA approved the quadrivalent HPV vaccine for young men to prevent anal precancerosis and cancer. Detailed cost effective modeling has preceded this decision showing that when the burden of disease in men is included in the models then, depending upon vaccine price, coverage of a vaccinated population, and other factors male vaccination can become cost effective. In any case, a targeted vaccination strategy especially for men who have sex with men would have substantial benefits.