Lichen sclerosus (LS) is a disease of unknown ethiology, affecting mainly postmenopausal women. LS belongs to the most frequent non-neoplastic epithelial disorders of the vulva, it has a typical macroscopic pattern, and it is characterized with an intensive pruritus or dyspareunia. Patients with LS have a risk of scarring of external genitalia and risk of developing squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Treatment of LS is usually long-term, repeated, and it is based on local potent corticosteroids. Surgical treatment is rarely indicated in the management of LS. Follow-up at a specialized center is recommended.